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The Paradigm Shift in Tumor Immunology through Single Cell Technologies and Artificial Intelligence

1. Rima Zinjuwadia (MS Bioinformatics) Northeastern University, 2023 2. Kirti Zinjuwadia (Regulatory affair and QC manager) White Collar Technologies, Inc., 2023

Poster # 64

The tumor microenvironment (TME) is an ecosystem that contains various cell types, including cancer cells, immune cells, stromal cells, and many others. In the TME, cancer cells aggressively proliferate, evolve, transmigrate to the circulation system and other organs, and frequently communicate with adjacent immune cells to suppress local tumor immunity. To understand tumor immunomics, it is crucial to delineate this ecosystem's complex cellular composition and their dynamic intercellular interactions. Due to the high complexities of the TME, more novel technologies and other immunotherapeutic strategies are needed to decipher the complicated interplay between tumor cells and the components of the tumor microenvironment. The rapid development of single-cell sequencing technology and analytical tools makes it possible for oncologists to understand the complexity of the tumor immune microenvironment and the resultant antitumor immune response. Furthermore, more advanced techniques have been developed to simultaneously characterize multi-omics and even spatial information at the single-cell level, helping us reveal the phenotypes and functionalities of disease-specific cell populations more comprehensively. In addition, radiomics and digital pathology based deep learning models largely contribute to research on cancer immunity. These artificial intelligence technologies have performed well in predicting response to immunotherapy, with profound significance in cancer therapy. In this review, we briefly summarize conventional and state-of-the-art technologies in the field of tumor immunology, recent progress in single-cell techniques, discuss their applications in various fields, artificial intelligence, and forecast the future directions for single-cell technologies in cancer research.

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